China Looks to Increase Natural Gas Consumption and Supply

In 2017, China was the world’s fastest-growing natural gas market. Consumption grew by 15 percent—over twice the rate of economic growth—and  liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports grew by 46 percent. In 2013, under the country’s National Action Plan on Air Pollution Prevention and Control, natural gas became a central part of the Chinese government’s plan for fighting air pollution. China’s thirteenth Five-Year Plan (2016–2020) set goals for increasing the use of natural gas, including almost doubling the share of natural gas in China’s energy mix in five years—providing up to 10 percent of China’s primary energy by 2020 and 15 percent by 2030.

In 2017, natural gas accounted for about 7 percent of China’s primary energy consumption. Over two-thirds of the natural gas consumed in China is used in industry and buildings (mainly for heating) with little used in power generation due to China’s staggering coal-fired capacity in that sector. The Chinese economy relies heavily on coal, which produces more particulate matter and other criteria pollutants than natural gas. Transitioning from coal to natural gas can reduce China’s soot and smog. China suffers from serious air pollution problems.

To implement the plan, China first required 28 cities in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region to replace small coal-fired boilers with natural gas–fired units. An estimated 4 million households switched from coal to natural gas. Beginning in December 2017 through 2021, China is targeting the replacement of these residential coal boilers across northern China. These small boilers are particularly bad at producing pollution, since their combustion is very inefficient.

To increase natural gas’s share of primary energy consumption, the Chinese government has undertaken a process of gradual price liberalization. Natural gas prices for nonresidential customers were liberalized beginning in 2015. In 2017, the government announced that third parties would receive access to pipelines and LNG import terminals.

China’s Push to Natural Gas Created Shortages

During the winter of 2017 to 2018, much of northern China experienced significant natural gas shortages. Millions of homes were temporarily left without heat. One provincial capital suspended heating in government offices, hotels, and shopping malls. Natural gas–fueled taxis and buses waited in long lines. Industrial output was scaled back to divert natural gas to emergency heating in homes and office buildings.

Contributing to the shortage were limited storage capacity, over stretched LNG infrastructure, gas pipeline shortages, colder than average temperatures, lack of market-based price signals due to the gas market being semi-regulated, and inadequate coordination among government officials.

At the end of 2017, China’s underground natural gas storage capacity was 11.7 billion cubic meters—about  5 percent of total consumption. This compares to natural gas storage capacity in the United States of 17 percent of consumption and in Europe of 27 percent.  

At the end of 2017, China had 16 operational LNG receiving terminals with 71 billion cubic meters of annual import capacity along the country’s east coast. During the peak winter months of December and January, the average nationwide utilization rate was above 105 percent and utilization at some northern terminals exceeded 120 percent. Although southern terminals operated at utilization rates of around 70 percent, the pipeline infrastructure to move natural gas from southern terminals to northern demand centers was insufficient. Chinese companies dispatched trucks to deliver LNG from receiving terminals in the south to cities in the north at distances of over a thousand miles and at a cost of over $30 per million Btu during the winter peak demand—almost three times the spot LNG price during this time period.

In the second half of 2017, pipeline gas deliveries from Turkmenistan dropped substantially due to stronger-than-anticipated demand growth and cold weather in Turkmenistan, unplanned outages at a gas processing facility, and an attempt to negotiate better pricing terms. Despite China’s attempts to purchase more supply from Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, natural gas pipeline imports from Central Asia remained largely flat during the months of peak winter gas demand.

Natural Gas Production

Most of China’s natural gas supply (about 60 percent) comes from domestic production—almost all from conventional wells. China’s natural gas production increased by nine percent in 2017, but could not keep up with the 15 percent annual growth in natural gas consumption.

Unconventional gas—particularly shale gas—has long-term growth potential in China, but its development has been challenging. China’s shale basins are located in mountainous, arid, remote and also highly populated regions, leading to higher costs. China’s shale is also buried deeper and is more fractured, making it difficult and expensive to extract.

According to the Energy Information Administration, China has the world’s largest shale gas resources at 1115.2 trillion cubic feet (31,579 billion cubic meters). Because of the challenges to producing it, the government subsidizes its production, currently at roughly 20 percent of well-head prices.  

The government’s 2020 target for shale gas production was scaled back from 100 billion cubic meters per year in 2012 to 30 billion cubic meters per year in 2014 due to a number of challenges including difficult terrain, high costs, poor geology, and long distances to markets. One energy consultant predicts that only about 17 billion cubic meters per year of production from shale is attainable by 2020, and would require a near doubling of current production in less than three years.

Helping increase efficiency, Chinese firms can now drill multiple wells at a single pad, known as “well factory” drilling and carry out extended horizontal fracturing up to 3,000 meters. Over the past 8 years, the cost of building a well was nearly halved to an average of under 50 million yuan per well ($7.8 million), and drilling speed has improved by two-thirds to 45 to 60 days. China pumped 9 billion cubic meters of shale gas in 2017—about 6 percent of the country’s total natural gas production.

Source: Forbes

China’s other sources of unconventional natural gas production—coalbed methane and coal gasification—are less likely to materialize over the long run.

Pipeline Imports of Natural Gas

China currently imports natural gas through two pipelines: the Central Asia gas pipeline (from Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan) and the China-Myanmar pipeline. A natural gas pipeline from Russia is currently under construction but is not likely to come on-line until the end of 2019.

In 2017, 39 billion cubic meters of natural gas was delivered by the Central Asia gas pipeline—below the 55 billion cubic meter capacity. Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan have some potential to increase pipeline gas deliveries to China, but producing more natural gas in those countries will take time. Another potential pipeline from Central Asia, known as Line D, could add another 30 billion cubic meters per year import capacity from Turkmenistan. Construction of Line D began in 2014, but the project was delayed in 2016 and suspended in 2017. If the project is completed, the earliest start of deliveries would be 2023 due to uncertainties around construction and timing, and technical difficulties due to the mountainous terrain.

The potential for increased natural gas imports through the China-Myanmar pipeline is also limited with deliveries falling short of the 5.2 billion cubic meter annual contract volume and the high cost of the gas. The Power of Siberia pipeline connecting Russia’s natural gas reserves in Eastern Siberia with China’s northeastern provinces could start deliveries by the end of 2019.  But the ramp up to full capacity—38 billion cubic meters per year of contracted volume—could take well into the mid-2020s. Also, Russia’s eastern gas fields may have a problem of providing the gas when China needs it most during the cold weather months.

Natural Gas Storage

China has plans to increase natural gas storage capacity from about 12 billion cubic meters today to 15 billion cubic meters by 2020 and 35 billion cubic meters by 2030. Last year, the Chinese government began requiring Chinese natural gas companies to build and maintain storage facilities. Upstream companies are required to build storage capacity equal to 10 percent of their annual contracted sales volume and midstream companies (including city gas distributors) are required to provide storage equal to 5 percent of annual consumption. Companies have several years to meet these requirements.

Plans for increasing natural gas storage rely mainly on state-owned enterprises because the financial returns on natural gas storage facilities in China are low. Regulated city-gate prices suppress the seasonal price signals that could incentivize private companies to invest in gas storage.

Although work is underway to expand China’s natural gas storage capacity, there are geological obstacles that limit its growth. In China, depleted oil and gas fields—the most commonly used geological means of storage—are located deep underground, close to densely populated areas or in mountainous regions, which raises safety risks and technical complexity; and the technical expertise to build new facilities is limited.

If the government targets for both natural gas storage capacity and natural gas consumption are met, storage is expected to reach 6 percent of consumption in 2030, compared to just over 5 percent today.

LNG Infrastructure

Analysts generally expect China’s LNG demand to reach 80 to 147 metric tons per annum (109 to 200 billion cubic meters per year) by 2030—roughly two to four times greater than the 38 metric tons per annum (mtpa) consumed in 2017. In most forecasts, China overtakes Japan (which imported 84 metric tons per annum of LNG last year) as the world’s largest LNG importing country in the mid- to late 2020s.

Five new or expanded regasification terminals are scheduled to come on-line in 2018. Several additional terminals are under construction or expanding capacity, with projected online dates between 2019 and 2021. China’s LNG import capacity could increase by half through the early 2020s. Because only about a quarter of China’s new import capacity is in the northern regions, parallel development of the domestic gas pipeline network is also needed. Plans call for an expansion of China’s natural gas pipeline network by 99,000 kilometers (about 60,000 miles) between 2015 and 2025.

Conclusion

China is expected to become the world’s leading LNG importer over the next decade.  Government natural gas targets imply strong demand growth for at least the next decade—although infrastructure constraints could limit consumption in the short and medium terms.  China is developing its vast shale gas resources to help meet demand.

The post China Looks to Increase Natural Gas Consumption and Supply appeared first on IER.

from Raymond Castleberry Blog http://raymondcastleberry.blogspot.com/2018/07/china-looks-to-increase-natural-gas.html
via http://raymondcastleberry.blogspot.com

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China Looks to Increase Natural Gas Consumption and Supply

In 2017, China was the world’s fastest-growing natural gas market. Consumption grew by 15 percent—over twice the rate of economic growth—and  liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports grew by 46 percent. In 2013, under the country’s National Action Plan on Air Pollution Prevention and Control, natural gas became a central part of the Chinese government’s plan for fighting air pollution. China’s thirteenth Five-Year Plan (2016–2020) set goals for increasing the use of natural gas, including almost doubling the share of natural gas in China’s energy mix in five years—providing up to 10 percent of China’s primary energy by 2020 and 15 percent by 2030.

In 2017, natural gas accounted for about 7 percent of China’s primary energy consumption. Over two-thirds of the natural gas consumed in China is used in industry and buildings (mainly for heating) with little used in power generation due to China’s staggering coal-fired capacity in that sector. The Chinese economy relies heavily on coal, which produces more particulate matter and other criteria pollutants than natural gas. Transitioning from coal to natural gas can reduce China’s soot and smog. China suffers from serious air pollution problems.

To implement the plan, China first required 28 cities in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region to replace small coal-fired boilers with natural gas–fired units. An estimated 4 million households switched from coal to natural gas. Beginning in December 2017 through 2021, China is targeting the replacement of these residential coal boilers across northern China. These small boilers are particularly bad at producing pollution, since their combustion is very inefficient.

To increase natural gas’s share of primary energy consumption, the Chinese government has undertaken a process of gradual price liberalization. Natural gas prices for nonresidential customers were liberalized beginning in 2015. In 2017, the government announced that third parties would receive access to pipelines and LNG import terminals.

China’s Push to Natural Gas Created Shortages

During the winter of 2017 to 2018, much of northern China experienced significant natural gas shortages. Millions of homes were temporarily left without heat. One provincial capital suspended heating in government offices, hotels, and shopping malls. Natural gas–fueled taxis and buses waited in long lines. Industrial output was scaled back to divert natural gas to emergency heating in homes and office buildings.

Contributing to the shortage were limited storage capacity, over stretched LNG infrastructure, gas pipeline shortages, colder than average temperatures, lack of market-based price signals due to the gas market being semi-regulated, and inadequate coordination among government officials.

At the end of 2017, China’s underground natural gas storage capacity was 11.7 billion cubic meters—about  5 percent of total consumption. This compares to natural gas storage capacity in the United States of 17 percent of consumption and in Europe of 27 percent.  

At the end of 2017, China had 16 operational LNG receiving terminals with 71 billion cubic meters of annual import capacity along the country’s east coast. During the peak winter months of December and January, the average nationwide utilization rate was above 105 percent and utilization at some northern terminals exceeded 120 percent. Although southern terminals operated at utilization rates of around 70 percent, the pipeline infrastructure to move natural gas from southern terminals to northern demand centers was insufficient. Chinese companies dispatched trucks to deliver LNG from receiving terminals in the south to cities in the north at distances of over a thousand miles and at a cost of over $30 per million Btu during the winter peak demand—almost three times the spot LNG price during this time period.

In the second half of 2017, pipeline gas deliveries from Turkmenistan dropped substantially due to stronger-than-anticipated demand growth and cold weather in Turkmenistan, unplanned outages at a gas processing facility, and an attempt to negotiate better pricing terms. Despite China’s attempts to purchase more supply from Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, natural gas pipeline imports from Central Asia remained largely flat during the months of peak winter gas demand.

Natural Gas Production

Most of China’s natural gas supply (about 60 percent) comes from domestic production—almost all from conventional wells. China’s natural gas production increased by nine percent in 2017, but could not keep up with the 15 percent annual growth in natural gas consumption.

Unconventional gas—particularly shale gas—has long-term growth potential in China, but its development has been challenging. China’s shale basins are located in mountainous, arid, remote and also highly populated regions, leading to higher costs. China’s shale is also buried deeper and is more fractured, making it difficult and expensive to extract.

According to the Energy Information Administration, China has the world’s largest shale gas resources at 1115.2 trillion cubic feet (31,579 billion cubic meters). Because of the challenges to producing it, the government subsidizes its production, currently at roughly 20 percent of well-head prices.  

The government’s 2020 target for shale gas production was scaled back from 100 billion cubic meters per year in 2012 to 30 billion cubic meters per year in 2014 due to a number of challenges including difficult terrain, high costs, poor geology, and long distances to markets. One energy consultant predicts that only about 17 billion cubic meters per year of production from shale is attainable by 2020, and would require a near doubling of current production in less than three years.

Helping increase efficiency, Chinese firms can now drill multiple wells at a single pad, known as “well factory” drilling and carry out extended horizontal fracturing up to 3,000 meters. Over the past 8 years, the cost of building a well was nearly halved to an average of under 50 million yuan per well ($7.8 million), and drilling speed has improved by two-thirds to 45 to 60 days. China pumped 9 billion cubic meters of shale gas in 2017—about 6 percent of the country’s total natural gas production.

Source: Forbes

China’s other sources of unconventional natural gas production—coalbed methane and coal gasification—are less likely to materialize over the long run.

Pipeline Imports of Natural Gas

China currently imports natural gas through two pipelines: the Central Asia gas pipeline (from Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan) and the China-Myanmar pipeline. A natural gas pipeline from Russia is currently under construction but is not likely to come on-line until the end of 2019.

In 2017, 39 billion cubic meters of natural gas was delivered by the Central Asia gas pipeline—below the 55 billion cubic meter capacity. Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan have some potential to increase pipeline gas deliveries to China, but producing more natural gas in those countries will take time. Another potential pipeline from Central Asia, known as Line D, could add another 30 billion cubic meters per year import capacity from Turkmenistan. Construction of Line D began in 2014, but the project was delayed in 2016 and suspended in 2017. If the project is completed, the earliest start of deliveries would be 2023 due to uncertainties around construction and timing, and technical difficulties due to the mountainous terrain.

The potential for increased natural gas imports through the China-Myanmar pipeline is also limited with deliveries falling short of the 5.2 billion cubic meter annual contract volume and the high cost of the gas. The Power of Siberia pipeline connecting Russia’s natural gas reserves in Eastern Siberia with China’s northeastern provinces could start deliveries by the end of 2019.  But the ramp up to full capacity—38 billion cubic meters per year of contracted volume—could take well into the mid-2020s. Also, Russia’s eastern gas fields may have a problem of providing the gas when China needs it most during the cold weather months.

Natural Gas Storage

China has plans to increase natural gas storage capacity from about 12 billion cubic meters today to 15 billion cubic meters by 2020 and 35 billion cubic meters by 2030. Last year, the Chinese government began requiring Chinese natural gas companies to build and maintain storage facilities. Upstream companies are required to build storage capacity equal to 10 percent of their annual contracted sales volume and midstream companies (including city gas distributors) are required to provide storage equal to 5 percent of annual consumption. Companies have several years to meet these requirements.

Plans for increasing natural gas storage rely mainly on state-owned enterprises because the financial returns on natural gas storage facilities in China are low. Regulated city-gate prices suppress the seasonal price signals that could incentivize private companies to invest in gas storage.

Although work is underway to expand China’s natural gas storage capacity, there are geological obstacles that limit its growth. In China, depleted oil and gas fields—the most commonly used geological means of storage—are located deep underground, close to densely populated areas or in mountainous regions, which raises safety risks and technical complexity; and the technical expertise to build new facilities is limited.

If the government targets for both natural gas storage capacity and natural gas consumption are met, storage is expected to reach 6 percent of consumption in 2030, compared to just over 5 percent today.

LNG Infrastructure

Analysts generally expect China’s LNG demand to reach 80 to 147 metric tons per annum (109 to 200 billion cubic meters per year) by 2030—roughly two to four times greater than the 38 metric tons per annum (mtpa) consumed in 2017. In most forecasts, China overtakes Japan (which imported 84 metric tons per annum of LNG last year) as the world’s largest LNG importing country in the mid- to late 2020s.

Five new or expanded regasification terminals are scheduled to come on-line in 2018. Several additional terminals are under construction or expanding capacity, with projected online dates between 2019 and 2021. China’s LNG import capacity could increase by half through the early 2020s. Because only about a quarter of China’s new import capacity is in the northern regions, parallel development of the domestic gas pipeline network is also needed. Plans call for an expansion of China’s natural gas pipeline network by 99,000 kilometers (about 60,000 miles) between 2015 and 2025.

Conclusion

China is expected to become the world’s leading LNG importer over the next decade.  Government natural gas targets imply strong demand growth for at least the next decade—although infrastructure constraints could limit consumption in the short and medium terms.  China is developing its vast shale gas resources to help meet demand.

The post China Looks to Increase Natural Gas Consumption and Supply appeared first on IER.

China Looks to Increase Natural Gas Consumption and Supply

In 2017, China was the world’s fastest-growing natural gas market. Consumption grew by 15 percent—over twice the rate of economic growth—and  liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports grew by 46 percent. In 2013, under the country’s National Action Plan on Air Pollution Prevention and Control, natural gas became a central part of the Chinese government’s plan for fighting air pollution. China’s thirteenth Five-Year Plan (2016–2020) set goals for increasing the use of natural gas, including almost doubling the share of natural gas in China’s energy mix in five years—providing up to 10 percent of China’s primary energy by 2020 and 15 percent by 2030.

In 2017, natural gas accounted for about 7 percent of China’s primary energy consumption. Over two-thirds of the natural gas consumed in China is used in industry and buildings (mainly for heating) with little used in power generation due to China’s staggering coal-fired capacity in that sector. The Chinese economy relies heavily on coal, which produces more particulate matter and other criteria pollutants than natural gas. Transitioning from coal to natural gas can reduce China’s soot and smog. China suffers from serious air pollution problems.

To implement the plan, China first required 28 cities in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region to replace small coal-fired boilers with natural gas–fired units. An estimated 4 million households switched from coal to natural gas. Beginning in December 2017 through 2021, China is targeting the replacement of these residential coal boilers across northern China. These small boilers are particularly bad at producing pollution, since their combustion is very inefficient.

To increase natural gas’s share of primary energy consumption, the Chinese government has undertaken a process of gradual price liberalization. Natural gas prices for nonresidential customers were liberalized beginning in 2015. In 2017, the government announced that third parties would receive access to pipelines and LNG import terminals.

China’s Push to Natural Gas Created Shortages

During the winter of 2017 to 2018, much of northern China experienced significant natural gas shortages. Millions of homes were temporarily left without heat. One provincial capital suspended heating in government offices, hotels, and shopping malls. Natural gas–fueled taxis and buses waited in long lines. Industrial output was scaled back to divert natural gas to emergency heating in homes and office buildings.

Contributing to the shortage were limited storage capacity, over stretched LNG infrastructure, gas pipeline shortages, colder than average temperatures, lack of market-based price signals due to the gas market being semi-regulated, and inadequate coordination among government officials.

At the end of 2017, China’s underground natural gas storage capacity was 11.7 billion cubic meters—about  5 percent of total consumption. This compares to natural gas storage capacity in the United States of 17 percent of consumption and in Europe of 27 percent.  

At the end of 2017, China had 16 operational LNG receiving terminals with 71 billion cubic meters of annual import capacity along the country’s east coast. During the peak winter months of December and January, the average nationwide utilization rate was above 105 percent and utilization at some northern terminals exceeded 120 percent. Although southern terminals operated at utilization rates of around 70 percent, the pipeline infrastructure to move natural gas from southern terminals to northern demand centers was insufficient. Chinese companies dispatched trucks to deliver LNG from receiving terminals in the south to cities in the north at distances of over a thousand miles and at a cost of over $30 per million Btu during the winter peak demand—almost three times the spot LNG price during this time period.

In the second half of 2017, pipeline gas deliveries from Turkmenistan dropped substantially due to stronger-than-anticipated demand growth and cold weather in Turkmenistan, unplanned outages at a gas processing facility, and an attempt to negotiate better pricing terms. Despite China’s attempts to purchase more supply from Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, natural gas pipeline imports from Central Asia remained largely flat during the months of peak winter gas demand.

Natural Gas Production

Most of China’s natural gas supply (about 60 percent) comes from domestic production—almost all from conventional wells. China’s natural gas production increased by nine percent in 2017, but could not keep up with the 15 percent annual growth in natural gas consumption.

Unconventional gas—particularly shale gas—has long-term growth potential in China, but its development has been challenging. China’s shale basins are located in mountainous, arid, remote and also highly populated regions, leading to higher costs. China’s shale is also buried deeper and is more fractured, making it difficult and expensive to extract.

According to the Energy Information Administration, China has the world’s largest shale gas resources at 1115.2 trillion cubic feet (31,579 billion cubic meters). Because of the challenges to producing it, the government subsidizes its production, currently at roughly 20 percent of well-head prices.  

The government’s 2020 target for shale gas production was scaled back from 100 billion cubic meters per year in 2012 to 30 billion cubic meters per year in 2014 due to a number of challenges including difficult terrain, high costs, poor geology, and long distances to markets. One energy consultant predicts that only about 17 billion cubic meters per year of production from shale is attainable by 2020, and would require a near doubling of current production in less than three years.

Helping increase efficiency, Chinese firms can now drill multiple wells at a single pad, known as “well factory” drilling and carry out extended horizontal fracturing up to 3,000 meters. Over the past 8 years, the cost of building a well was nearly halved to an average of under 50 million yuan per well ($7.8 million), and drilling speed has improved by two-thirds to 45 to 60 days. China pumped 9 billion cubic meters of shale gas in 2017—about 6 percent of the country’s total natural gas production.

Source: Forbes

China’s other sources of unconventional natural gas production—coalbed methane and coal gasification—are less likely to materialize over the long run.

Pipeline Imports of Natural Gas

China currently imports natural gas through two pipelines: the Central Asia gas pipeline (from Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan) and the China-Myanmar pipeline. A natural gas pipeline from Russia is currently under construction but is not likely to come on-line until the end of 2019.

In 2017, 39 billion cubic meters of natural gas was delivered by the Central Asia gas pipeline—below the 55 billion cubic meter capacity. Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan have some potential to increase pipeline gas deliveries to China, but producing more natural gas in those countries will take time. Another potential pipeline from Central Asia, known as Line D, could add another 30 billion cubic meters per year import capacity from Turkmenistan. Construction of Line D began in 2014, but the project was delayed in 2016 and suspended in 2017. If the project is completed, the earliest start of deliveries would be 2023 due to uncertainties around construction and timing, and technical difficulties due to the mountainous terrain.

The potential for increased natural gas imports through the China-Myanmar pipeline is also limited with deliveries falling short of the 5.2 billion cubic meter annual contract volume and the high cost of the gas. The Power of Siberia pipeline connecting Russia’s natural gas reserves in Eastern Siberia with China’s northeastern provinces could start deliveries by the end of 2019.  But the ramp up to full capacity—38 billion cubic meters per year of contracted volume—could take well into the mid-2020s. Also, Russia’s eastern gas fields may have a problem of providing the gas when China needs it most during the cold weather months.

Natural Gas Storage

China has plans to increase natural gas storage capacity from about 12 billion cubic meters today to 15 billion cubic meters by 2020 and 35 billion cubic meters by 2030. Last year, the Chinese government began requiring Chinese natural gas companies to build and maintain storage facilities. Upstream companies are required to build storage capacity equal to 10 percent of their annual contracted sales volume and midstream companies (including city gas distributors) are required to provide storage equal to 5 percent of annual consumption. Companies have several years to meet these requirements.

Plans for increasing natural gas storage rely mainly on state-owned enterprises because the financial returns on natural gas storage facilities in China are low. Regulated city-gate prices suppress the seasonal price signals that could incentivize private companies to invest in gas storage.

Although work is underway to expand China’s natural gas storage capacity, there are geological obstacles that limit its growth. In China, depleted oil and gas fields—the most commonly used geological means of storage—are located deep underground, close to densely populated areas or in mountainous regions, which raises safety risks and technical complexity; and the technical expertise to build new facilities is limited.

If the government targets for both natural gas storage capacity and natural gas consumption are met, storage is expected to reach 6 percent of consumption in 2030, compared to just over 5 percent today.

LNG Infrastructure

Analysts generally expect China’s LNG demand to reach 80 to 147 metric tons per annum (109 to 200 billion cubic meters per year) by 2030—roughly two to four times greater than the 38 metric tons per annum (mtpa) consumed in 2017. In most forecasts, China overtakes Japan (which imported 84 metric tons per annum of LNG last year) as the world’s largest LNG importing country in the mid- to late 2020s.

Five new or expanded regasification terminals are scheduled to come on-line in 2018. Several additional terminals are under construction or expanding capacity, with projected online dates between 2019 and 2021. China’s LNG import capacity could increase by half through the early 2020s. Because only about a quarter of China’s new import capacity is in the northern regions, parallel development of the domestic gas pipeline network is also needed. Plans call for an expansion of China’s natural gas pipeline network by 99,000 kilometers (about 60,000 miles) between 2015 and 2025.

Conclusion

China is expected to become the world’s leading LNG importer over the next decade.  Government natural gas targets imply strong demand growth for at least the next decade—although infrastructure constraints could limit consumption in the short and medium terms.  China is developing its vast shale gas resources to help meet demand.

The post China Looks to Increase Natural Gas Consumption and Supply appeared first on IER.

Solar Energy International (SEI) opens its first International Solar Training Center in Costa Rica

With this facility SEI seeks to accelerate and expand access to solar training to Spanish speakers throughout Latin America

CARTAGO, COSTA RICA- Solar Energy International (SEI), an industry leader in solar energy technical training, opened its first International Solar Training Center in Costa Rica through a partnership with CFIA (Federated College of Engineers and Architects of Costa Rica) and CIEMI (College of Electrical, Mechanical and Industrial Engineers).

This new training facility will accelerate and expand access to world-class solar training to Spanish speakers throughout Latin America, building a strong solar industry in the region with qualified workforce in line with SEI’s vision of a world powered by renewable energy. Since the beginning of SEI’s Spanish Program in 2013, SEI has trained over 9,000 Spanish speakers, empowering Latin Americans with solar education, which has increased energy access for their communities.

The Solar Training Center SEI-CFIA is located in the province of Cartago, Costa Rica, inside the facilities of CFIA’s Integral Training Center Uxarrací.

The center is fully equipped with the best tools to construct, commission and test solar electric arrays. It has 3 solar PV systems installed in compliance with the US National Electrical Code (NEC), which allows students to learn about the most up-to-date design and safety parameters. The systems are composed of leading technologies and popular products available internationally for students to build and wire photovoltaic arrays from the roof up.

As it is SEI’s commitment to bring the highest level of safety and training to Latin America, the center is constructed in compliance with OSHA regulations modeling the safest possible working environment for the students’ learning experience. Equipment to teach safest procedures such as harnesses, electric insulating gloves, helmets and protective glasses are available and required for all students.

Industry professionals hired as instructors take SEI’s leading curriculum and apply it for Latin American students to take a hands-on approach to system assembly, wiring and commissioning.  As photovoltaic arrays are modular, they are able to extrapolate the system to much larger sizes and capacities.

Marco Calvo, President of CIEMI Board of Directors said in regard the opening of the new center:
“By partnering with SEI, we are fulfilling the responsibility to offer our community the security that things are being done as they should, with high quality professional standards. From CIEMI we seek to offer solutions to the professionals of the solar industry so that they are able to build efficient, safe and reliable installations. The solar industry is growing in Costa Rica and in Latin America, and we want our workforce to be prepared to occupy the new jobs that the sector generates. We trust in the trajectory of SEI and the quality of its instructors to provide qualified education”.

Matthew Harris, LatAm Business Development Director, said:
“The Costa Rica campus is an invaluable opportunity for SEI to bring high quality PV education to a growing Latin American market. Over 26 years of time-tested and evolving techniques stand behind SEI’s academic and hands-on curriculum. It is SEI’s mission to bring solar electricity to people around the world empowering people, business and communities”

Enrollments to take SEI’s spanish courses in Costa Rica are now open. To learn more, contact the SEI Spanish Program Student Service team at programahispano@solarenergy.org or call +1-970-527-7657 xt. 8.

About Solar Energy International: SEI was founded in 1991 as a nonprofit educational organization with the mission to provide industry-leading technical training and expertise in renewable energy to empower people, communities and businesses worldwide. SEI envisions a world powered by renewable energy. To learn more about the Spanish Program visit www.solarenergy.org/es

About CFIA: The Federated College of Engineers and Architects of Costa Rica ensures the excellence and decorum of its members, for the development of an efficient, responsible and interdisciplinary professional exercise of engineering and architecture, to contribute to the security and sustainable progress of Costa Rica.

About CIEMI: The College of Electrical, Mechanical and Industrial Engineers (CIEMI) is one of the five colleges that make up the Federated College of Engineers and Architects of Costa Rica. The role of the CIEMI is to regulate the professional practice of all those professional areas of engineering that are attached to this school in Costa Rica and that currently correspond to 28 specialties.

The post Solar Energy International (SEI) opens its first International Solar Training Center in Costa Rica appeared first on Solar Training – Solar Installer Training – Solar PV Installation Training – Solar Energy Courses – Renewable Energy Education – NABCEP – Solar Energy International (SEI).

Solar Energy International (SEI) opens its first International Solar Training Center in Costa Rica

With this facility SEI seeks to accelerate and expand access to solar training to Spanish speakers throughout Latin America

CARTAGO, COSTA RICA- Solar Energy International (SEI), an industry leader in solar energy technical training, opened its first International Solar Training Center in Costa Rica through a partnership with CFIA (Federated College of Engineers and Architects of Costa Rica) and CIEMI (College of Electrical, Mechanical and Industrial Engineers).

This new training facility will accelerate and expand access to world-class solar training to Spanish speakers throughout Latin America, building a strong solar industry in the region with qualified workforce in line with SEI’s vision of a world powered by renewable energy. Since the beginning of SEI’s Spanish Program in 2013, SEI has trained over 9,000 Spanish speakers, empowering Latin Americans with solar education, which has increased energy access for their communities.

The Solar Training Center SEI-CFIA is located in the province of Cartago, Costa Rica, inside the facilities of CFIA’s Integral Training Center Uxarrací.

The center is fully equipped with the best tools to construct, commission and test solar electric arrays. It has 3 solar PV systems installed in compliance with the US National Electrical Code (NEC), which allows students to learn about the most up-to-date design and safety parameters. The systems are composed of leading technologies and popular products available internationally for students to build and wire photovoltaic arrays from the roof up.

As it is SEI’s commitment to bring the highest level of safety and training to Latin America, the center is constructed in compliance with OSHA regulations modeling the safest possible working environment for the students’ learning experience. Equipment to teach safest procedures such as harnesses, electric insulating gloves, helmets and protective glasses are available and required for all students.

Industry professionals hired as instructors take SEI’s leading curriculum and apply it for Latin American students to take a hands-on approach to system assembly, wiring and commissioning.  As photovoltaic arrays are modular, they are able to extrapolate the system to much larger sizes and capacities.

Marco Calvo, President of CIEMI Board of Directors said in regard the opening of the new center:
“By partnering with SEI, we are fulfilling the responsibility to offer our community the security that things are being done as they should, with high quality professional standards. From CIEMI we seek to offer solutions to the professionals of the solar industry so that they are able to build efficient, safe and reliable installations. The solar industry is growing in Costa Rica and in Latin America, and we want our workforce to be prepared to occupy the new jobs that the sector generates. We trust in the trajectory of SEI and the quality of its instructors to provide qualified education”.

Matthew Harris, LatAm Business Development Director, said:
“The Costa Rica campus is an invaluable opportunity for SEI to bring high quality PV education to a growing Latin American market. Over 26 years of time-tested and evolving techniques stand behind SEI’s academic and hands-on curriculum. It is SEI’s mission to bring solar electricity to people around the world empowering people, business and communities”

Enrollments to take SEI’s spanish courses in Costa Rica are now open. To learn more, contact the SEI Spanish Program Student Service team at programahispano@solarenergy.org or call +1-970-527-7657 xt. 8.

About Solar Energy International: SEI was founded in 1991 as a nonprofit educational organization with the mission to provide industry-leading technical training and expertise in renewable energy to empower people, communities and businesses worldwide. SEI envisions a world powered by renewable energy. To learn more about the Spanish Program visit www.solarenergy.org/es

About CFIA: The Federated College of Engineers and Architects of Costa Rica ensures the excellence and decorum of its members, for the development of an efficient, responsible and interdisciplinary professional exercise of engineering and architecture, to contribute to the security and sustainable progress of Costa Rica.

About CIEMI: The College of Electrical, Mechanical and Industrial Engineers (CIEMI) is one of the five colleges that make up the Federated College of Engineers and Architects of Costa Rica. The role of the CIEMI is to regulate the professional practice of all those professional areas of engineering that are attached to this school in Costa Rica and that currently correspond to 28 specialties.

The post Solar Energy International (SEI) opens its first International Solar Training Center in Costa Rica appeared first on Solar Training – Solar Installer Training – Solar PV Installation Training – Solar Energy Courses – Renewable Energy Education – NABCEP – Solar Energy International (SEI).

Solar Energy International (SEI) opens its first International Solar Training Center in Costa Rica

With this facility SEI seeks to accelerate and expand access to solar training to Spanish speakers throughout Latin America

CARTAGO, COSTA RICA- Solar Energy International (SEI), an industry leader in solar energy technical training, opened its first International Solar Training Center in Costa Rica through a partnership with CFIA (Federated College of Engineers and Architects of Costa Rica) and CIEMI (College of Electrical, Mechanical and Industrial Engineers).

This new training facility will accelerate and expand access to world-class solar training to Spanish speakers throughout Latin America, building a strong solar industry in the region with qualified workforce in line with SEI’s vision of a world powered by renewable energy. Since the beginning of SEI’s Spanish Program in 2013, SEI has trained over 9,000 Spanish speakers, empowering Latin Americans with solar education, which has increased energy access for their communities.

The Solar Training Center SEI-CFIA is located in the province of Cartago, Costa Rica, inside the facilities of CFIA’s Integral Training Center Uxarrací.

The center is fully equipped with the best tools to construct, commission and test solar electric arrays. It has 3 solar PV systems installed in compliance with the US National Electrical Code (NEC), which allows students to learn about the most up-to-date design and safety parameters. The systems are composed of leading technologies and popular products available internationally for students to build and wire photovoltaic arrays from the roof up.

As it is SEI’s commitment to bring the highest level of safety and training to Latin America, the center is constructed in compliance with OSHA regulations modeling the safest possible working environment for the students’ learning experience. Equipment to teach safest procedures such as harnesses, electric insulating gloves, helmets and protective glasses are available and required for all students.

Industry professionals hired as instructors take SEI’s leading curriculum and apply it for Latin American students to take a hands-on approach to system assembly, wiring and commissioning.  As photovoltaic arrays are modular, they are able to extrapolate the system to much larger sizes and capacities.

Marco Calvo, President of CIEMI Board of Directors said in regard the opening of the new center:
“By partnering with SEI, we are fulfilling the responsibility to offer our community the security that things are being done as they should, with high quality professional standards. From CIEMI we seek to offer solutions to the professionals of the solar industry so that they are able to build efficient, safe and reliable installations. The solar industry is growing in Costa Rica and in Latin America, and we want our workforce to be prepared to occupy the new jobs that the sector generates. We trust in the trajectory of SEI and the quality of its instructors to provide qualified education”.

Matthew Harris, LatAm Business Development Director, said:
“The Costa Rica campus is an invaluable opportunity for SEI to bring high quality PV education to a growing Latin American market. Over 26 years of time-tested and evolving techniques stand behind SEI’s academic and hands-on curriculum. It is SEI’s mission to bring solar electricity to people around the world empowering people, business and communities”

Enrollments to take SEI’s spanish courses in Costa Rica are now open. To learn more, contact the SEI Spanish Program Student Service team at programahispano@solarenergy.org or call +1-970-527-7657 xt. 8.

About Solar Energy International: SEI was founded in 1991 as a nonprofit educational organization with the mission to provide industry-leading technical training and expertise in renewable energy to empower people, communities and businesses worldwide. SEI envisions a world powered by renewable energy. To learn more about the Spanish Program visit www.solarenergy.org/es

About CFIA: The Federated College of Engineers and Architects of Costa Rica ensures the excellence and decorum of its members, for the development of an efficient, responsible and interdisciplinary professional exercise of engineering and architecture, to contribute to the security and sustainable progress of Costa Rica.

About CIEMI: The College of Electrical, Mechanical and Industrial Engineers (CIEMI) is one of the five colleges that make up the Federated College of Engineers and Architects of Costa Rica. The role of the CIEMI is to regulate the professional practice of all those professional areas of engineering that are attached to this school in Costa Rica and that currently correspond to 28 specialties.

The post Solar Energy International (SEI) opens its first International Solar Training Center in Costa Rica appeared first on Solar Training – Solar Installer Training – Solar PV Installation Training – Solar Energy Courses – Renewable Energy Education – NABCEP – Solar Energy International (SEI).

from Raymond Castleberry Blog http://raymondcastleberry.blogspot.com/2018/07/solar-energy-international-sei-opens.html
via http://raymondcastleberry.blogspot.com

The Rules of Link Building – Whiteboard Friday

Posted by BritneyMuller

Are you building links the right way? Or are you still subscribing to outdated practices? Britney Muller clarifies which link building tactics still matter and which are a waste of time (or downright harmful) in today’s episode of Whiteboard Friday.

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The Rules of Link Building

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Video Transcription

Happy Friday, Moz fans! Welcome to another edition of Whiteboard Friday. Today we are going over the rules of link building. It’s no secret that links are one of the top three ranking factors in Goggle and can greatly benefit your website. But there is a little confusion around what’s okay to do as far as links and what’s not. So hopefully, this helps clear some of that up.

The Dos

All right. So what are the dos? What do you want to be doing? First and most importantly is just to…

I. Determine the value of that link. So aside from ranking potential, what kind of value will that link bring to your site? Is it potential traffic? Is it relevancy? Is it authority? Just start to weigh out your options and determine what’s really of value for your site.

II. Local listings still do very well. These local business citations are on a bunch of different platforms, and services like Moz Local or Yext can get you up and running a little bit quicker. They tend to show Google that this business is indeed located where it says it is. It has consistent business information — the name, address, phone number, you name it. But something that isn’t really talked about all that often is that some of these local listings never get indexed by Google. If you think about it, Yellowpages.com is probably populating thousands of new listings a day. Why would Google want to index all of those?

So if you’re doing business listings, an age-old thing that local SEOs have been doing for a while is create a page on your site that says where you can find us online. Link to those local listings to help Google get that indexed, and it sort of has this boomerang-like effect on your site. So hope that helps. If that’s confusing, I can clarify down below. Just wanted to include it because I think it’s important.

III. Unlinked brand mentions. One of the easiest ways you can get a link is by figuring out who is mentioning your brand or your company and not linking to it. Let’s say this article publishes about how awesome SEO companies are and they mention Moz, and they don’t link to us. That’s an easy way to reach out and say, “Hey, would you mind adding a link? It would be really helpful.”

IV. Reclaiming broken links is also a really great way to kind of get back some of your links in a short amount of time and little to no effort. What does this mean? This means that you had a link from a site that now your page currently 404s. So they were sending people to your site for a specific page that you’ve since deleted or updated somewhere else. Whatever that might be, you want to make sure that you 301 this broken link on your site so that it pushes the authority elsewhere. Definitely a great thing to do anyway.

V. HARO (Help a Reporter Out). Reporters will notify you of any questions or information they’re seeking for an article via this email service. So not only is it just good general PR, but it’s a great opportunity for you to get a link. I like to think of link building as really good PR anyway. It’s like digital PR. So this just takes it to the next level.

VI. Just be awesome. Be cool. Sponsor awesome things. I guarantee any one of you watching likely has incredible local charities or amazing nonprofits in your space that could use the sponsorship, however big or small that might be. But that also gives you an opportunity to get a link. So something to definitely consider.

VII. Ask/Outreach. There’s nothing wrong with asking. There’s nothing wrong with outreach, especially when done well. I know that link building outreach in general kind of gets a bad rap because the response rate is so painfully low. I think, on average, it’s around 4% to 7%, which is painful. But you can get that higher if you’re a little bit more strategic about it or if you outreach to people you already currently know. There’s a ton of resources available to help you do this better, so definitely check those out. We can link to some of those below.

VIII. COBC (create original badass content). We hear lots of people talk about this. When it comes to link building, it’s like, “Link building is dead. Just create great content and people will naturally link to you. It’s brilliant.” It is brilliant, but I also think that there is something to be said about having a healthy mix. There’s this idea of link building and then link earning. But there’s a really perfect sweet spot in the middle where you really do get the most bang for your buck.

The Don’ts

All right. So what not to do. The don’ts of today’s link building world are…

I. Don’t ask for specific anchor text. All of these things appear so spammy. The late Eric Ward talked about this and was a big advocate for never asking for anchor text. He said websites should be linked to however they see fit. That’s going to look more natural. Google is going to consider it to be more organic, and it will help your site in the long run. So that’s more of a suggestion. These other ones are definitely big no-no’s.

II. Don’t buy or sell links that pass PageRank. You can buy or sell links that have a no-follow attached, which attributes that this is paid-for, whether it be an advertisement or you don’t trust it. So definitely looking into those and understanding how that works.

III. Hidden links. We used to do this back in the day, the ridiculous white link on a white background. They were totally hidden, but crawlers would pick them up. Don’t do that. That’s so old and will not work anymore. Google is getting so much smarter at understanding these things.

IV. Low-quality directory links. Same with low-quality directory links. We remember those where it was just loads and loads of links and text and a random auto insurance link in there. You want to steer clear of those.

V. Site-wide links also look very spammy. Site wide being whether it’s a footer link or a top-level navigation link, you definitely don’t want to go after those. They can appear really, really spammy. Avoid those.

VI. Comment links with over-optimized anchor link text, specifically, you want to avoid. Again, it’s just like any of these others. It looks spammy. It’s not going to help you long term. Again, what’s the value of that overall? So avoid that.

VII. Abusing guest posts. You definitely don’t want to do this. You don’t want to guest post purely just for a link. However, I am still a huge advocate, as I know many others out there are, of guest posting and providing value. Whether there be a link or not, I think there is still a ton of value in guest posting. So don’t get rid of that altogether, but definitely don’t target it for potential link building opportunities.

VIII. Automated tools used to create links on all sorts of websites. ScrapeBox is an infamous one that would create the comment links on all sorts of blogs. You don’t want to do that.

IX. Link schemes, private link networks, and private blog networks. This is where you really get into trouble as well. Google will penalize or de-index you altogether. It looks so, so spammy, and you want to avoid this.

X. Link exchange. This is in the same vein as the link exchanges, where back in the day you used to submit a website to a link exchange and they wouldn’t grant you that link until you also linked to them. Super silly. This stuff does not work anymore, but there are tons of opportunities and quick wins for you to gain links naturally and more authoritatively.

So hopefully, this helps clear up some of the confusion. One question I would love to ask all of you is: To disavow or to not disavow? I have heard back-and-forth conversations on either side on this. Does the disavow file still work? Does it not? What are your thoughts? Please let me know down below in the comments.

Thank you so much for tuning in to this edition of Whiteboard Friday. I will see you all soon. Thanks.

Video transcription by Speechpad.com

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from Raymond Castleberry Blog http://raymondcastleberry.blogspot.com/2018/07/the-rules-of-link-building-whiteboard.html
via http://raymondcastleberry.blogspot.com